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Durso-Gates LGBT Homeless Youth Survey July 2012


Public Policy Fellow at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law;


Williams Distinguished Scholar at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law

This report by the The Palette Fund, True Colors Fund, and the Williams Institute presents data from The Lesbian,
Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Homeless Youth Provider Survey, a web-based survey conducted from
October 2011 through March 2012. The survey was designed to assess the experiences of homeless youth
organizations in providing services to LGBT youth. It also assessed the prevalence of LGBT youth within the
homeless populations being served by these organizations. In total, 381 respondents completed at least part of
the survey, representing 354 agencies throughout the United States.



To Promote the Safety and Well-Being of Lesbian, Gay,

Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth and

Youth at Risk of or Living with HIV in Child Welfare Settings

May 2008

Child Welfare League of America

This publication consolidates and summarizes
recommended practices derived from previous
of the Child Welfare League of America,
the American Bar Association Center on Children and
the Law: Opening Doors for LGBTQ Youth in Foster
Care Project, Diane E. Elze, the Family Acceptance
Project, Lambda Legal, Legal Services for Children,
Gerald P. Mallon, Robin McHaelen, the National Alliance
to End Homelessness, the National Center for Lesbian
Rights, the National Center for Transgender Equality,
the National Network for Youth and the Sylvia Rivera
Law Project, among others. We encourage agencies
to refer to the original publications for additional
contextual information about LGBTQ youth in foster
care as well as detailed commentary supporting the
practices recommended in the following pages.

ACT for (Trans) Youth, Part 1

Growing Up Transgender: Research and Theory

March 2008

by Seth T. Pardo

As transgender identities become increasingly visible, those who work with and those who love trans youth seek resources to understand what it means to grow up “trans.” With little to guide us, adults may fall back on outdated theories or confuse transgender and gay identities. This article offers an introduction to current research and theory behind transgender identity formation, and suggests a framework for understanding gender that moves beyond a rigid binary system.

ACT for (Trans) Youth, Part 2

Growing Up Transgender: Safety and Resilience

September 2008

by Seth T. Pardo

and Karen Schantz

As they navigate the many social settings in which they grow up, transgender youth are too often left to face formidable obstacles alone, without the external supports that foster both safety and healthy development. Adults often find gender nonconformity unfamiliar territory, and may find themselves unsure of how to respond. How can we help to create the conditions for trans youth to participate in society authentically and safely?

An Affirmative Intervention for Families with

Gender-Variant Children: A Process Evaluation


Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA


College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, New York, USA

This is a report on a program for parents who have children who
exhibit gender-variant behaviors and who contacted an affirmative
program in the United States for assistance. All parents completed
semi-structured telephone interviews. The data analysis proceeded
in two phases, first as a grounded-theory analysis for themes that
emerged from the data, and second as an examination of the data
in light of the psychology of social exclusion. The results support
the contention that parents who develop a supportive stance about
their child’s gender variance are diverse in their concerns and
may or may not start from a position of rejection and attempts at
normalization. In order to arrive to acceptance, parents go through
a process of reassessment of previously held attitudes or beliefs, and
this process is varied. Regardless of initial attitudes, most parents
reported significant benefits, both to their self and their child, from
their involvement with the program.

Helping Families Support Their Lesbian, Gay,

Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Children


Director, Family Acceptance Project™ – San Francisco State University

This practice brief was developed for families,
caretakers, advocates, and providers to:
      • Provide basic information to help families
support their lesbian, gay, bisexual, and

transgender (LGBT) children;

• Share some of the critical new research from
the Family Acceptance Project TM (FAP) at

Francisco State University. This important
new research shows that families have

major impact on their LGBT children’s health,
mental health, and well-being; and

• Give families and LGBT youth hope that
ethnically, religiously, and socially diverse

families, parents, and caregivers can become
more supportive of their LGBT children.

This practice brief reports on specific findings
from FAP research.

Gender-Nonconforming Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth:

School Victimization and Young Adult Psychosocial Adjustment

Russell B. Toomey

University of Arizona,

Caitlin Ryan

and Rafael M. Diaz

San Francisco State University,

Noel A. Card

and Stephen T. Russell

University of Arizona

Past research documents that both adolescent gender nonconformity and the experience of school
victimization are associated with high rates of negative psychosocial adjustment. Using data from the
Family Acceptance Project’s young adult survey, we examined associations among retrospective reports
of adolescent gender nonconformity and adolescent school victimization due to perceived or actual
lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status, along with current reports of life satisfaction and
depression. The participants included 245 LGBT young adults ranging in age from 21 to 25 years. Using
structural equation modeling, we found that victimization due to perceived or actual LGBT status fully
mediates the association between adolescent gender nonconformity and young adult psychosocial
adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction and depression). Implications are addressed, including specific strategies
that schools can implement to provide safer environments for gender-nonconforming LGBT students.

Fact Sheet: Transgender & Gender Nonconforming

Youth in Schools

Sylvia Rivera Law Project

New York, New York

Many public school administrators, faculty and staff have a lot of questions when working with students who are transgender or gender nonconforming. This fact sheet is designed to give basic information about the law as it pertains to transgender and gender nonconforming students in New York City.

Aspects of Psychological Resilience among Transgender Youth

Arnold H. Grossman; Anthony R. D’augelli; John A. Franka

Department of Applied Psychology, New York University,

New York, New York, USA

College of
Health and Human Development, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA

Fifty-five transgender youth described their gender development
and some of the stressful life experiences related to their gender
identity and gender expression. More than two-thirds of youth reported
past verbal abuse by their parents or peers related to their
gender identity and nonconformity, and approximately one-fifth
to one-third reported past physical abuse. The more gender nonconforming
the youth were, the more abuse they reported. Four
aspects of psychological resilience were examined: a sense of personal
mastery, self-esteem, perceived social support, and emotionoriented
coping. A regression model of the selected aspects of resilience
accounted for 40%–55% of the variance in relation to
depression, trauma symptoms, mental health symptoms, and internalizing
and externalizing problems. Emotion-oriented coping
was a significant predictor of negative mental health as determined

by each of the mental health variables.

Transgender Youth:

Invisible and Vulnerable

Arnold H. Grossman, PhD

New York University

Anthony R. D’Augelli, PhD

The Pennsylvania State University

SUMMARY. This study used three focus groups to explore factors that
affect the experiences of youth (ages 15 to 21) who identify as transgender.
The focus groups were designed to probe transgender youths’
experiences of vulnerability in the areas of health and mental health.
This involved their exposure to risks, discrimination, marginalization,
and their access to supportive resources. Three themes emerged from an
analysis of the groups’ conversations. The themes centered on gender
identity and gender presentation, sexuality and sexual orientation, and
vulnerability and health issues. Most youth reported feeling they were
transgender at puberty, and they experienced negative reactions to their
gender atypical behaviors, as well as confusion between their gender identity and sexual orientation. Youth noted four problems related to
their vulnerability in health-related areas: the lack of safe environments,
poor access to physical health services, inadequate resources to address

their mental health concerns, and a lack of continuity of caregiving by
their families and communities.

Early Childhood Development – Your Options – How Do

I Know If My Child Is Transgender?

By Stephanie Brill and Caitlin Ryan, PhD, ACSW


What Is transgender?

Can a Child Be Transgender?

What Makes a Child Transgender?

Why Can’t My Child Be “Normal”?

How Should I Respond?

How Can I know If It’s a Phase?

Where Do I Get Help, Support, and More Information?

Resources for Families & Providers